EYE CONDITIONS

  • HYPERMETROPIA (OR) LONG SIGHTEDNESS

    The refractive state of the eye when the parallel rays of light get focused behind the retina.

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    Eye strain and headache, blurred vision for distance and or near. Severity of the symptoms are related to the amount of accommodation available.

     

    CORRECTION: 

    Convex (plus powered) lenses are required to correct hypermetropia.

  • ASTIGMATISM (NO POINT FOCUS)

    The refractive state of the eye when the light rays get focused at multiple points thus causing distorted vision.

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    Astigmatism distorts or blurs vision for both near and far objects. Its almost like looking into a funhouse mirror in which you appear too tall , too wide or too thin. It can be in combination with myopia or hypermetropia.

     

    CORRECTION:

    Cylindrical lenses are used to correct astigmatism.

  • PRESBYOPIA

    Age related condition causing near vision problems, normally occurs at the age of 40 years. After the age of 40, the crystalline lens become more rigid because the crystalline lens cant change shape as easily as it once did , it is more difficult to read at close range and in dim light.

     

    CORRECTION:

    Plus power needs to be prescribed for near in addition to the corrected distance power if any.

  • CONJUNCTIVITIS

    Inflammation of the conjunctiva. Usually caused by microorganisms like bacteria , virus and also can be caused by some allergens in the environment.

     

    TYPES OF CONJUNCTIVITIS:

    1) Bacterial conjunctivitis

    2) Viral conjunctivitis

    3) Allergic conjunctivitis

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    Redness, watering, discharge, foreign body sensation, burning sensation, a sensation of fullness around the eyes, itching and (when the cornea is also affected) photophobia(sensitivity to light).

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    A disease of the retinal blood vessels that has become a leading cause of blindness in the western world. The incidence and severity of diabetic retinopathy increase with the duration of the diabetes, and the retinopathy is worse if the diabetes is poorly controlled in the early years after onset.

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    A sensation of glare (due to scattering of light by the edematous retina) is a common complaint. However if the macula is deprived of its blood supply or if the edema or hard exudates encroach on the macula, visual acuity is decreased.

     

    TREATMENT:

    If diabetes is well controlled in its early years, the onset of retinopathy is delayed and its severity is reduced. Laser photocoagulation may help, at least for a few years, when vision is affected by a local area of retinal edema.

     

    TYPES OF RETINAL DETACHMENT:

     

    1) TRACTIONAL RD:

    It is caused by progressive contraction of fibrovascular membranes over large areas of vitreoretinal adhesion. Owing to the strong adhesions of the cortical vitreous to areas of fibrovascular proliferation, PVD is gradual and usually incomplete.

     

    2) EXUDATIVE RD:

    Exudative RD is characterized by the accumulation of SRF in the absence of retinal breaks or traction it may occur in a variety of vascular, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases involving fluid leaks which accumulates under the retina. As long as the RPE can pump the leaking fluid into the choriodal circulation, no fluid accumulates in the sub retinal space and RD does not occur. However , when the normal RPE ipump is overwhelmed, or if the RPE activity is decreased, then fluid starts to accumulate in the sub retinal space resulting in RD.

     

  • PAPILLEDEMA

    Papilledema (choked disc) is a non inflammatory congestion of the optic disc associated with increased intracranial pressure. Papilledema will occur in any condition causing persistent increased intracranial pressure.

     

    CAUSES:

    The most common causes are cerebral tumors, abscesses, subdural hematoma, hydrocephalus and malignant hypertension.

     

    TREATMENT:

    Treatment depends upon the enderlying cause.

  • MYOPIA (OR) SHORT SIGHTEDNESS (BLURRED VISION)

    The refractive state of the eye when the parallel rays of the light get focused in front of the retina. This normally happens due to increase in the axial length of the eyeball or increase in the total power of the eye or a combination of both.

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    1) Far objects appear blurred and near objects are clear marking the person to go closer to the object (eg watching television).

    2) Taking the reading material close to face.

    3) Squeezing of the eyes.

     

    CORRECTION:

    Concave (minus powered) lenses are required to correct myopia

     

  • EMMETROPIA (NORMAL EYE)

    The refracting state of the eye when the parallel rays of light get focused on the retina and person can see clearly.

     

    When light enters the eye, it first passes through the cornea, which is also called the window of the eye. Cornea contribution to about 2/3rd of the total eye power. After passing through cornea , the light now passes through the other transparent structures which are aqueous humor , crystalline lens(contributing to about 1/3rd of the total eye power), vitreous and finally gets focused on to the retina.

     

    Emmetropia means eye with no refractive error and having normal vision (6/6).

  • PTERYGIUM

    Pterygium is a fleshy, triangular encroachment of an elastic tissue onto the cornea.

     

    Usually it is present in both the eyes. It is thought to be an irritative phenomenon due to sunny (ultraviolet light), dusty and sandy environment , hence commonly seen in people who are engaged in outdoor activities.

     

    Sunglasses can be of great help in preventing the formation of ptreyium.

  • KERATOCONUS (CONE SHAPED CORNEA)

    Keratoconus is an uncommon degenerative bilateral disease that is inherited as a genetic trait. This condition is marked by generalized thinning and bulging of the central cornea with superficial linear scars at the apex of the cone causing irregular astigmatism and poor vision.

     

    SYMPTOMS: 

    Blurred vision is the only symptom

     

    TREATMENT:

    Contact lenses & Surgery

  • A RETINAL HOLE

    Liquid in the vitreous compartment with free access to the hole. A force sufficient to break the bond between the retina and the pigment epithelium and transfer fluid from in front of to behind the retina

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    Shadow or curtain spreading across the field of vision. When the detachments spreads very slowly, the patient may be unaware of any problem until the macula is affected.

     

    TREATMENT:

    Surgical repair is mandatory in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

  • CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

    CRVO is due to blockage of the central retinal vein. It is an uncommon condition, usually monocular in which the retina and disc are swollen, the retinal veins are dilated and tortuous and there are many retinal hemorrhages with a variable number of cotton wool patches.

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    Slow, painless loss of vision. Predisposing systemic diseases are hypertension, diabetes and condition that slow venous blood flow.

     

    The management of CRVO is best left to the Ophthalmologist.

  • CENTRAL SEROUS RETINOPATHY

    This disorder occurs at any age past the early teens and affects makes more often than females. Although it is usually monocular, both eyes may be affected either concurrently or sequentially. There is accumulation of fluid in the subretinal space. This transudate is either clear or partly opaque. The resulting smooth retinal detachment may extend up to 6 disc diameters in circumference.

     

    SYMPTOMS:

    1) The main symptom is blurred vision and as with most macular problems –exposure to bright light makes this worse. Visual Acuity is reduced to a variable degree, and there is a slight shift toward hyperopia.

     

    2) In most cases the leak closes spontaneously, and the subretinal fluid is resorbed within 3 months of the onset of the disease. Most of the patients recover good vision and some might be affected by metamorpsia.

     

    3) In the most common cause of irreversible visual loss in the developed world in individuals over 50 years of age. It is geographic atrophy of the RPE, may be associated with drusen, pigment epithelial detachment with or without neurosensory detachment, subretinal or sub-PRE choroidal neovascularization, subretinal scar, hemorrhage and exudates.

     

    The prevalence of severe visual loss increases with age.

     

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